Octopuses often break out of their aquariums and sometimes into others in search of food. A gland attached to the sac produces the ink, and the sac stores it. They can also contract their arms and surrounding web to make sudden moves known as "take-offs". A pair of larger Pacific striped octopus, or LPSOs, separate after mating. The head includes the mouth and brain. Most octopus species live their lives largely on their own.  The larger Pacific striped octopus however is social, living in groups of up to 40 individuals that share dens. Jet propulsion or backwards swimming, is their fastest means of locomotion, followed by swimming and crawling. , When octopuses reproduce, the male uses a specialised arm called a hectocotylus to transfer spermatophores (packets of sperm) from the terminal organ of the reproductive tract (the cephalopod "penis") into the female's mantle cavity.  "Stilt walking" is used by the veined octopus when carrying stacked coconut shells. , Octopuses are gonochoric and have a single, posteriorly-located gonad which is associated with the coelom.  In cold conditions with low oxygen levels, haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin. , The diseases and parasites that affect octopuses have been little studied, but cephalopods are known to be the intermediate or final hosts of various parasitic cestodes, nematodes and copepods; 150 species of protistan and metazoan parasites have been recognised. ", "What's Odd About That Octopus?  A complex hydraulic mechanism releases the sperm from the spermatophore, and it is stored internally by the female. In fact, few of a spawning's thousands of hatched babies will reach maturity. [a] The soft body can rapidly alter its shape, enabling octopuses to squeeze through small gaps. They have been reported to practise observational learning, although the validity of these findings is contested. Jetting is used to escape from danger, but is physiologically inefficient, requiring a mantle pressure so high as to stop the heart from beating, resulting in a progressive oxygen deficit.  Other researchers hypothesise that cephalopod eyes in species which only have a single photoreceptor protein may use chromatic aberration to turn monochromatic vision into colour vision, though this sacrifices image quality. When the larger Pacific striped octopus was first observed in the 1970s, its unusual social and mating behavior were so strange that no one would publish it. , The digestive system of the octopus begins with the buccal mass which consists of the mouth with its chitinous beak, the pharynx, radula and salivary glands.  The lamella structure of the gills allows for a high oxygen uptake, up to 65% in water at 20 Â°C (68 Â°F). The octopus has two nephridia (equivalent to vertebrate kidneys) which are associated with the branchial hearts; these and their associated ducts connect the pericardial cavities with the mantle cavity. IN THE late 1960s, Aradio Rodaniche was diving off the coast of Nicaragua when he made the discovery that has tantalised cephalopod biologists ever since. It can detect local texture variations, but cannot integrate the information into a larger picture. Photo Roy Caldwell. Other creatures, such as fish, crabs, molluscs and echinoderms, often share the den with the octopus, either because they have arrived as scavengers, or because they have survived capture. , The thin skin of the octopus absorbs additional oxygen. In this she broods the young, and it also serves as a buoyancy aid allowing her to adjust her depth.  Cirrate octopuses lack the ink sac. Hence, greater transcriptome plasticity has come at the cost of slower genome evolution. Small prey may be completely trapped by the webbed structure. These animals lay large eggs three to six weeks after mating. Southern New England is the northern extent of this creature's rangeâand in North Atlantic waters, these adaptable invertebrates generally grow to 24-36 inches and have a natural lifespan of 12-18 months. Blue-ringed octopus have tetrodotoxin", "A Review of Octopus Fisheries Biology and British Columbia Octopus Fisheries", "The status of octopus fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean", "Macho foodies in New York develop a taste for notoriety", "Biologists Search for New Model Organisms", "Octopuses Are 'the Closest We Will Come to Meeting an Intelligent Alien, "Octopus slips out of aquarium tank, crawls across floor, escapes down pipe to ocean", "The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (Amendment) Order 1993", "The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 Amendment Regulations 2012", "Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council", "Octopus-Inspired Robots Can Grasp, Crawl, and Swim", "This robotic octopus tentacle isn't creepy at all", "Studying the creativity and intelligence of the octopus", "Octopus in the Gulf of Maine are not like the ones seen in 60s horror films", "The world wants to eat more octopus. 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